General principles concerning the state of equilibrium of fluids
This work, the first of a series of three that constitute Euler's masterful treatise on fluid mechanics (the others being E226 and E227), contains a formulation of hydrostatics, a special case of Euler's theory of fluid motion. It represents a turning point in the history of physics and the continuum view of matter put foward as a basic principle, and it has sometimes been cited as the origin of the theory that the normality of pressure implies its equality in all directions. Euler proves that for dynamical principles, there is no essential difference between compressible and incompressible fluids. In this paper, he also (1) fully elaborates the concept of pressure and its applications; (2) presents for the first time the general equations of hydrostatics; (3) clarifies his idea of a gas thermometer; and (4) presents for the first time the equations of equilibrium. (Based on Clifford Truesdell's introduction to Opera Omnia Series II, Volume 12.)
Original Source Citation
Mémoires de l'académie des sciences de Berlin, Volume 11, pp. 217-273.
Opera Omnia Citation
Series 2, Volume 12, pp.2-53.