To evaluate structural profiles and mechanical behaviour of WaveOne Gold (WOG), Twisted File Adaptive (TFA) and XP-endo shaper (XPS) instruments after root canal preparation. Standardized in vitro shaping was performed in presence of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. File morphology was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy; X-ray diffraction analysis was performed before and after use along with Raman spectroscopy. Nanoindentation was carried out to characterize surface topography. Ni2+ release was measured at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was done before and after use. After allocating scan line shifts like in WOG, mechanical deformation was shown using first order polynomials. XPS file system showed minimal grooves on surface. SEM of WOG instrument showed scraping surface defects. Hardness varied from 8.11 ± 0.99 GPa in TFA system to 6.7 ± 1.27 GPa and 4.06 ± 4.1 GPa in XPS and WOG. Ni2+ concentration from WOG was 171.2 μg/L. Raman peak at 540–545 cm−1 is attributed to Cr2O3. High resolution of Ti 2p spectrum show distinctive peaks with binding energies dominating in WOG, XPS and TFA file system. XRD exhibited NiTi phases with diffraction peaks. WOG files showed more surface deterioration and less passive layer formation as compared to TFA and XPS systems.
Peters, O. A.,
Evaluation of usage-induced degradation of different endodontic file systems.
Scientific Reports, 11(1), 9027.
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