Title

Level of endothelial cell apoptosis required for a significant decrease in microvessel density

ORCiD

Dr. Benjamin D. Zeitlin: 0000-0003-0110-0188

Document Type

Article

Publication Title

Experimental Cell Research

ISSN

0014-4827

Volume

313

Issue

16

DOI

10.1016/j.yexcr.2007.07.023

First Page

3645

Last Page

3657

Publication Date

Fall 10-1-2007

Abstract

Endothelial cell apoptosis plays a critical role in the disruption of blood vessels mediated by natural inhibitors of angiogenesis and by anti-vascular drugs. However, the proportion of endothelial cells required to mediate a significant decrease in microvessel density is unknown. A system based on an inducible caspase (iCaspase-9) offers a unique opportunity to address this question. The dimerizer drug AP20187 induces apoptosis of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells stably transduced with iCaspase-9 (HDMEC-iCaspase-9), but not control cells (HDMEC-LXSN). Here, we generated blood vessels containing several HDMEC-iCaspase-9:HDMEC-LXSN ratios, and developed a mathematical modeling involving a system of differential equations to evaluate experimentally inaccessible ratios. A significant decrease in capillary sprouts was observed when at least 17% of the endothelial cells underwent apoptosis in Vitro. Exposure to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF(165)) did not prevent apoptosis of HDMEC-iCaspase-9, but increased the apoptotic requirement for sprout disruption. in vivo experiments showed the requirement of at least 22% apoptotic endothelial cells for a significant decrease in microvascular density. The combined use of biological experimentation with mathematical modeling allowed us to conclude that apoptosis of a relatively small proportion of endothelial cells is sufficient to mediate a significant decrease in microvessel density. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.