Dynamic torque and apical forces of ProFile.04 rotary instruments during preparation of curved canals.


Dr. Ove A. Peters: 0000-0001-5222-8718



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International Endodontic Journal







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AIM: To analyse torque and force generated whilst shaping curved canals using rotary instruments.

METHODOLOGY: A specially designed computer-controlled testing platform was used to record events during the shaping of straight and curved canals in plastic blocks and in extracted human teeth using ProFile.04 instruments. Size 40 apical stops were prepared using crown-down, apical preparation and step-back procedures. Maximum torque, apically directed force and the numbers of revolutions were recorded at a resolution of 100 samples s-1. Load causing separation as required by the ISO 3630-1 test and cyclic fatigue was also recorded. Mean maximum scores were calculated and statistically tested using one- and two-way analyses of variance.

RESULTS: Highest and lowest torque scores were recorded, respectively, in straight canals in plastic blocks at 25 Nmm and in natural canals at 14 Nmm. Significant differences were recorded for canal type and preparation phase (P < 0.0001). Loads causing separation varied from 3.7 to 32.3 Nmm. Apically directed forces ranged from 1 to 7.5 N. Again, there were significant differences depending on canal type and preparation phase (P < 0.0001). The number of revolutions during preparation ranged from 18 to 41. Size 15, 30 and 45 ProFile.04 instruments separated after 581, 430 and 402 revolutions, respectively, in a standard cyclic fatigue test.

CONCLUSIONS: The new torque-testing platform details physical parameters during preparation of curved canals. To improve predictability, instrumentation sequences must be tested for excessively high torsional moments or forces. This study indicated that up to 10 curved canals could be safely prepared with a sequence of ProFile. 04 rotary instruments without separation due to cyclic fatigue. Efforts should continue to correlate root canal anatomy with torque and force generated during rotary root canal preparation.

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