Title

Baseline Body Composition Affects Exercise Response: Results from Diabetic and Athletic Populations

ORCID

J. Mark Van Ness: 0000-0001-5902-8735

Document Type

Conference Presentation

Department

Health, Exercise, and Sport Sciences Department

Conference Title

2018 ACSM National Conference

Organization

American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)

Location

Minneapolis, MN

Conference Dates

May 29 - June 2, 2018

Date of Presentation

5-30-2018

Journal Publication

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

ISSN

1530-0315

DOI

10.1249/01.mss.0000535255.64451.f6

Volume

50

Issue

5s

Publication Date

2018-05-01

First Page

52

Last Page

53

Abstract

When adults initiate an exercise prescription, approximately 51% do so with a declared goal of weight loss. Decreasing adiposity correlates with disease risk reduction and, in some sport contexts, improved performance. However, exercise adherence is typically poor; within 6 months of engagement, expected attrition exceeds 50%. Those who fail to sustain the practice commonly report being discouraged by a lack of progress. Thus, it is important to identify and understand the variables that influence the rate of fat loss at the onset of an exercise program.

PURPOSE: To evaluate predictors of body composition improvement among diverse exercising populations.

METHODS: We enrolled subjects from two distinct populations: older diabetic patients with no history of exercise (n=67) and college-aged rugby athletes (n=12). Each population underwent baseline testing to assess body fat percent (BF%) prior to and following a period of exercise. The diabetic population performed structured, supervised exercise for 10 weeks; the athletic population performed unsupervised, unstructured exercise for 4 weeks. Multiple linear regression analyses, holding other explanatory variables constant, tested predictors of BF% change.

RESULTS: At baseline, the diabetic patients were 68.3 ± 10.7 years of age, had a body mass index (BMI) of 32.3 ± 6.7 kg/m2, and 39.3 ± 6.9% body fat. The rugby athletes were 19.6 ± 2.0 years of age, had a BMI of 25.2 ± 2.8 kg/m2, and 13.4 ± 4.3% body fat. Among diabetic patients, controlling for potential confounders, each additional point of baseline BF% predicted a 0.18-point reduction in BF% at post-test (p=0.010; 95% CI: -0.32 to -0.05); the overall model was significant (R2=0.395; p=0.002). Among rugby athletes, controlling for potential confounders, each additional point of baseline BF% predicted a 0.33-point reduction in post-test BF% (p=0.042; 95% CI: -0.65 to -0.02).

CONCLUSION: Among exercising diabetic and athletic populations, higher baseline BF% corresponded to greater improvements in body composition throughout the exercise intervention. Among athletic populations, this may mean more rapid improvements in sport performance; for diabetic populations, this may lead to greater improvements in glycemic control.

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