Title

Genetics Involved in Palatogenesis

Poster Number

23

Lead Author Affiliation

Dugoni School of Dentistry, Orthodontics

Additional Authors

Miroslav Tolar and Marie M. Tolarova

Introduction

Mammalian palatogenesis occurs early during embryonic development. A deep knowledge of the process, by which a secondary palate is formed, is important for understanding of etiology of oral clefts, especially nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate.

Purpose

In this poster, we want to show new information about morphogenetic cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in palatal shelf growth, elevation, adhesion and fusion during formation of a palatal bone.

Method

Relevant recent articles were reviewed and the new information was combined with the earlier discovered information.

Results

Important phases in formation of secondary palate: Palatal shelf growth: Reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions guide the growth of palatal shelves. Palatal shelf elevation: Remodeling and horizontal outgrowth from the medial walls of the vertical palatal shelves provide for formation of horizontal palatal shelves. Palatal shelf adhesion and fusion: Mice deficient for transcription factor p63 (Tp63) and interferon regulatory factor6 (Irf6) are born with cleft palate. Palatal Fusion: Transforming growth factor beta (Tgfb) signaling has an important role in fusion of palatal shelves. Snail family members are also crucial regulators of palatal fusion. Apoptosis of contacting epithelia makes fusion of shelf connective tissue matrix possible. Further growth of palatal bone: Bmpr1a and Tbx22 transcription factors are required for palatal bone formation and growth. Insights gained from animal models: Understanding of the genetic control of palatogenesis is mainly derived from animal experimental studies on mice, birds and zebrafish. Although many genes identified in animal models are involved in palatogenesis in humans, some mechanisms, especially those involving participation of environmental factors, are different.

Significance

Current research showed numerous factors that are essential for normal palatogenesis. If combined with results of research on environmental factors, this knowledge can be applied to development of clinical and public programs preventing development of nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate anomalies in humans.

Location

DeRosa University Center, Stockton campus, University of the Pacific

Format

Poster Presentation

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Apr 25th, 2:00 PM Apr 25th, 4:00 PM

Genetics Involved in Palatogenesis

DeRosa University Center, Stockton campus, University of the Pacific

Mammalian palatogenesis occurs early during embryonic development. A deep knowledge of the process, by which a secondary palate is formed, is important for understanding of etiology of oral clefts, especially nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate.