American Southerners in Brazil, 1911

Muir, now 73 years old, embarked on a long journey to visit South American and Africa searching for unique trees. He also noted the people and in this passage from his Trip to South America journal part one. "Mr. Stone also raises large quantities of cacao. He came here after the Civil War, with other disgusted Southerners, Brazil being then a slave state. He with others has made a fortune here although slavery for many years has been abolished." (John Muir Papers, August-October 1911 trip to South America)

For more information...

Read John Muir's Last Journey: South to the Amazon and East to Africa, 2001 edited by Michael Branch.