Campus Access Only

All rights reserved. This publication is intended for use solely by faculty, students, and staff of University of the Pacific. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, now known or later developed, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the author or the publisher.

Date of Award


Document Type

Thesis - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)


Sport Sciences

First Advisor

Mark VanNess

First Committee Member

Sharon West

Second Committee Member

Margaret Ciccolella


Controlled frequency breathing (CFB) is a training technique used by swimmers in an effort to limit oxygen availability to the body and stimulate anaerobic metabolism. During CFB, a swimmer restricts breathing to one breath every six, seven, or even eight strokes per breath. The purpose of this study was to determine tb.e influen<;:e of CFB on blood lactate, heart rate, and stroke rate during front crawl stroke swimming. A maximal exertion test was used to determine peak swimming velocity. Based on this maximal test, five different workloads were used to compare CFB and normal breathing (NB). Subjects swam three-minute workloads at 55%,65%,75%, 85%, and 95% of maximal effort with two minutes rest between each workload. Blood lactate and heart rate were measured immediately after each workload and stroke rate was counted manually. Subjects were assigned to breathe normally (NB) or to restrict their breathing to one breath every eight strokes (CFB). Breathing conditions were randomly assigned. Multivariate analysis was used to compare the blood lactate, heart rate, and stroke rate between NB and CFB. Tukey's post hoc test was used when F-values were significant (p<0.05). Twenty-eight subjects (18 females, 10 males) completed the entire protocol. As expected there were significant main effects for the heart rate and blood lactate responses to increasing workloads (p<0.01). However, CFB did not alter blood lactate levels when compared to NB. Interestingly, heart rate (p=0.014) was lower and stroke rate (p=0.011) was higher in the CFB condition when compared to N'B.



To access this thesis/dissertation you must have a valid email address and log-in to Scholarly Commons.

Find in PacificSearch



If you are the author and would like to grant permission to make your work openly accessible, please email