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Date of Award


Document Type

Dissertation - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)


Educational and Counseling Psychology

First Advisor

Judith Van Hoorn

First Committee Member

David Baral

Second Committee Member

Mari G. Irvin

Third Committee Member

Tom Nelson

Fourth Committee Member

David Brigham


This research was conducted to explore the relationship between self-actualization and the Japanese martial art of Aikido. Time spent in active practice of Aikido served as the predictor variable and the quasi-experimental intervention. The Personal Orientation Dimensions served as the measuring instrument foe self- actualization. The 13 scale scores were the dependent variables. Of the most significant results, six scales were chosen to form the basis for the structured interview. The interview was conducted with five practicing Black Belt Aikidoists.

The research subjects were all Aikido students from four different schools with a common lineage. Later efforts to expend outside the lineage were not productive. There were three groups in this research. Those who were tested at least once, those who were tested twice, and the five selected Aikido Black Belts for the interview.

The first group was the Total Group and consisted of all respondents and the scores of the first sampling of the Test-Retest Group (n=48, 24 females, 24 males). Sixteen respondents were between 18 and 30 years old, 25 between 31 and 45, and 7 were 46 years old and above. Average months practicing Aikido was 32.95 with an average of 3.58 times per week and 4.6 hours per week. A Multiple Regression showed significant positive changes in four scales at the p<.01 level and six scales showed positive directional change at the p<.05 level. This gives some support to the hypothesis that the active practice of Aikido may contribute to self-actualization over time. The Analysis of Variance performed on the dependent means of the Test-Retest Group produced one positive direction for one scale p<.05, n=ll. This was not considered significant for this study.

The interviews focused on the ccntent of six of the most significant scales and confirmed the quantitative findings. Additional information about the effects of Aikido upon students based on the interviews is presented.

The study provides additional support for the use of Eastern self-actualization technology with Western students. Possibilities for use include school systems, therapist training, and promoting the general mental health of the population.



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