Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)


Graduate School

First Advisor

Robert R. Hopkins

First Committee Member

Roger L. Reimer

Second Committee Member

Augustine Garcia

Third Committee Member

Larry L. Lawson

Fourth Committee Member

Douglas W. Matheson


Originated by current demands for accountability in schools and resultant appeals for a return to the use of scholastic feedback, this study investigated the effects of feedback in light of certain characteristics of learning, and in light of student characteristics such as ability, age, and sex. The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of specific informational feedback on hierarchical learning in a controlled laboratory setting, using the experimental controls inherent in identical twins. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children/Revised (WISC-R) was used “unconventionally” as a series of discrete hierarchical learning tasks subject to concise experimental manipulation. Possible differences with regard to different forms of learning, as embodied in the scales of the instrument, were investigated. Possible differences with regard to ability, age, and sex were also determined, on the assumption that the results would shed light on potentially controversial practices tied to accountability, such as objective grading, ability grouping for instructional purposes, the use of merit systems, and others.



Included in

Education Commons