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Date of Award


Document Type

Dissertation - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)



First Advisor

Frank Ciriza

First Committee Member

Thomas Cy Coleman

Second Committee Member

Sally M. Miller

Third Committee Member

Donald M. Decker

Fourth Committee Member

Joseph L. Anastasio


Purpose. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to assess the progress of affirmative action employment programs in selected California school districts to increase the representation and utilization of racial and ethnic minority groups and women in all areas of the certificated workforce; and, (2) to ascertain environmental factors that affect the implementation of affirmative action employment programs in California public schools.

Procedures. Seven school districts' hiring goals were assessed for compliance based on the intent and spirit of the district and state policies on affirmative action. Additionally, one-hundred affirmative action officers were sampled via questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to solicit information on factors that may have affected the implementation of affirmative action employment programs in California public schools.

Findings. Some of the major findings were: (1) Disparity existed in the student/teacher ratio for Hispanics and relative parity existed for American Indians, Asians, Filipinos and Blacks. (2) Most school districts failed to increase the representation and utilization of minorities and women in educational administration. (3) Proposition 13 and student enrollment declines were two environmental factors that impeded the implementation of affirmative action employment programs. (4) The Bilingual Education Act facilitated the implementation of affirmative action employment programs by increasing the representation of minorities in the certificated workforce. (5) Lack of total commitment to this concept was conveyed by policy implementors.

Conclusions. State legislation such as the state Bilingual Education Act of 1976 seemed to have facilitated progress toward a reasonable racial and ethnic parity with the student population for most groups. Significant disparity still exist for the Hispanic population in all categories of employment. In educational administration employment such negative environmental factors as Proposition 13 and declining student enrollments appear to have been most influential. Successful implementation of affirmative action employment programs in some school districts and some categories may have been curbed by lack of total commitment to the realization of this concept by policy implementors.

Recommendations. Some of the major recommendations are: (1) Replicate the first part of this study over a longer assessment period, with a larger sample. (2) Analyze and assess school districts' affirmative action employment program procedures for compliance determination. (3) Compare school districts with and without bilingual education programs with respect to affirmative action employment progress.



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