Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)



First Advisor

Michael B. Gilbert

First Committee Member

John V. Schippers

Second Committee Member

Don D. Grade

Third Committee Member

William G. Theimer, Jr.

Fourth Committee Member

Suzanne B. Hansen [?]


There was a need to determine if there was any evidence that people in official music leadership positions in school districts had performed a service which had demonstrated effects on various elements of the music program.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not school districts WITH music leaders, as compared to those districts WITHOUT music leaders, have more (1) music students, (2) music classes and performance group opportunities, (3) music staff and development opportunities, (4) adequate financial support and adequate inventories for music, and (5) goal orientation in music. Also, the study was to determine if students, teachers, administrators, and parents in districts WITH music leadership had more positive attitudes toward school music.

A review of the literature was conducted to locate studies relevant to the effects of music leadership. Historical background to educational supervision and music leadership was reviewed along with trends in music education.

One hundred one out of 136 school districts responded to the survey which was designed to collect information concerning music programs. There were 36 districts WITH and 65 WITHOUT music leaders. An opinionnaire was submitted to gather data for analyzing opinions of students, teachers, administrators, and parents concerning their music program.

The 705 responses represented twenty school districts. The instruments were field tested and were deemed reliable and valid. Cross validation and randomization was used in order to allow for generalizations. Comparisons were made between districts WITH and WITHOUT music leadership. The data were tested to determine differences between the two district types.

Districts WITH music leadership were found to have significantly (1) more students involved in music, (2) more music performance group opportunities, (3) more staff development opportunities and more outside help, (4) more adequate musical instrument inventories, and (5) more goal orientation. Respondents to the opinionnaire in WITH districts had more favorable attitudes concerning their school district music programs. There were no differences in per capita expenses or student/staff ratios.

The study indicated that WITH districts displayed more expansive music opportunities. Causation was not determined. The data suggested that music leadership was a useful factor in the education of children. These findings have not been associated with higher per capita expenses or student/staff ratios. School districts might benefit from utilization of music leaders.

Studies are needed (1) to isolate factors of causation per the above findings; (2) to determine more effective roles and methods of music administration; and (3) to give more in-depth analysis to various parts of music programs which might be affected by music leadership.