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Date of Award


Document Type

Dissertation - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)


Educational Administration and Leadership

First Advisor

Estelle Lau

First Committee Member

Robert Morrow

Second Committee Member

Dennis Brennan

Third Committee Member

John Hwang

Fourth Committee Member

Mari Irvin


The educational needs of Asian Pacific American students in higher education frequently are not addressed because of being viewed as a "model minority." Thus, student services and academic support programs are oftentimes not appropriately provided for Hmong students. This study was conducted at California State University, Sacramento to determine the student service and academic support needs of currently enrolled Hmong students, whether or not the services were available, and the factors which contributed to their academic success or failure. The qualitative case study method was utilized so that an in-depth understanding of the situation could be determined. A purposive or criterion-based sampling method was used to identify twenty-two currently enrolled Hmong students. Personal interviews were conducted using an interview guide (Appendix B). The data obtained through the taped interviews were transcribed and the Microsoft Excel computerized statistical software was used. The information was retrieved for an in-depth analysis for text interpretation and theory building. The University provides a comprehensive range of student services and academic support programs, however, only approximately one-half of the services were known to the students. The programs or services which focused on Hmong students, and provided financial, advising and tutoring services were viewed as most beneficial. A majority (50 percent) of the students felt uncomfortable, unaccepted, detached, and not part of the campus community. A higher percentage of males (60 percent) expressed these feelings, and were more critical and less positive than the females. A significant number of students stated that their English as a second language and math needs were being met. Overall, it appears that the students have performed academically at an acceptable level. The Hmong University Student Association provided a culturally and academically supportive environment. An additional key service the University could provide is a more effective method of disseminating information on availability of services. Recommendations for future research include: determine whether or not peer support and study groups enable ethnic students, particularly Hmong students, to persist and do better academically; and reasons for Hmong students leaving the University.



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