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Date of Award


Document Type

Dissertation - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)


Educational Administration and Leadership

First Advisor

Dennis Brennan

First Committee Member

Phyllis Hensley

Second Committee Member

Ramesh Krishnamurthy

Third Committee Member

Robert Morrow


This research study examines the differences between two types of learning presentation formats and their correlation to learning media, and delivery preferences. A research study was conducted with Fall semester-2000, college freshmen, to determine if there was a significant difference in learning via Computer Based Training (CBT) with or without Multimedia information such as: color, photographs, music, or speech. The major questions researched were: (1) Is learning via CBT more effective with or without multimedia information? (2) Which sequence is more effective, that is: (a) presenting non-multimedia information ahead of multimedia information, or (b) presenting multimedia information ahead of non-multimedia information? A set of non-multimedia and multimedia lessons and questions was developed using current courseware development technology, and recorded on CD-ROMs. A demographic questionnaire was used to correlate performance scores and completion times with the two learning presentation formats. Demographic factors researched included student age range, skill level with computers and applications, educational learning media, and educational delivery preferences that is, learning face-to-face (FTF) vs. learning in a distance-learning (DL) environment. Findings revealed that there were no significant statistical differences in learning between non-multimedia and multimedia presentation formats with performance score as the outcome. However, performance score was improved when the participant first experienced a multimedia presentation format. Using participants who had non-multimedia first, completion time in non-multimedia and multimedia sessions did not differ significantly. However, completion time in multimedia was significantly longer than that in non-multimedia condition when the participant first experienced multimedia. With respect to demographic factors, age and skill level did not reveal significant statistical results in performance score as an outcome. However, completion time was significantly reduced when linked with a higher skill level. On average, participants preferred FTF to DL. However, those participants, who preferred DL, scored approximately 10% higher than their FTF counterparts. Recommendations for incorporating multimedia and distance learning are included in the dissertation. Educational leaders are encouraged to review these findings particularly, during the decision-making process. Following the (Recommendations for Practice) section can help to demystify technological applications and arm educational administrators with information for a fruitful request-for-bid process.




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