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Date of Award


Document Type

Dissertation - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)


Curriculum and Instruction

First Advisor

Ruth Brittin

First Committee Member

Marilyn Draheim

Second Committee Member

Michael Wright

Third Committee Member

Eric Hammer


This study documented participation at school jazz festivals according to gender and instrument and explored interaction patterns between clinicians and students to determine if participation patterns in jazz education resemble those in math and science, where females have been found to be underrepresented in high-level courses. This study analyzed data collected at two middle and high school jazz festivals with male and female students participating in stage performances and in post-performance clinics. Out of a total student population of 556 performers, males were found to represent a disproportionate percentage of the population (males = 70% and females = 30%). Significantly more males were found on all instruments, with the exception of piano, where females represented the majority (male pianists = 42.5% and female pianists = 57.5%). Solo patterns revealed that even though there were more female pianists, male pianists were featured as a soloist a total of 17 times, in contrast to 5 total solos for female pianists. Categorical data from solo patterns for all instruments showed that males were featured significantly more often as a soloist on saxophone and piano. Given the research on sex-stereotyping of instruments, where saxophone and piano are considered as less “masculine” instruments, this research noted that no significant difference in solo patterns were found between males and females who perform on the more “masculine” instruments (trumpet, trombone, drums, and bass). Overall, males did solo significantly more often than girls, based on the proportion of boys to girls in the total sample. Interaction analysis, using a modification of the INTERSECT observation form utilized by researchers Sadker & Sadker, of post-performance clinics found that males dominated all interactions. Males raised their hands more often, were called on and called-out more often and were asked to play at a higher rate than female performers. Results suggest that jazz education might benefit from intervention strategies similar to those implemented in math and science education to narrow the participation and interaction gap between males and females.




9780493420523 , 0493420525

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