Campus Access Only

All rights reserved. This publication is intended for use solely by faculty, students, and staff of University of the Pacific. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, now known or later developed, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the author or the publisher.

Date of Award


Document Type

Thesis - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)


Graduate Studies

First Advisor

David E. Wolfe

First Committee Member

Allen Brown

Second Committee Member

Audree S. O'Connell


This study investigated the application of music as a factor in influencing running pace of runners. Thirty (30) runners of varying ages, paces, and distances run per week were individually tested on two runs: one, with music, using a portable cassette player; the other, without music. Results indicated that there was a statistically significant difference in actual, as well as perceived, running pace between the experimental conditions. Of the 30 runners: 19 actually increased their pace, 20 runners perceived an increase in running pace, 3 maintained there was no change and 7 felt the music decreased their running pace. In addition, most runners reported that they enjoyed running to music, and felt that it assisted them in diverting attention from the actual run, thereby enhancing the total running experience.



To access this thesis/dissertation you must have a valid email address and log-in to Scholarly Commons.

Find in PacificSearch



If you are the author and would like to grant permission to make your work openly accessible, please email