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Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)


Graduate School

First Advisor

Frank Ciriza

First Committee Member

Fred Muskal

Second Committee Member

William P. Bacon

Third Committee Member

Roger L. Reimer

Fourth Committee Member

Ezekiel Ramirez


PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether students in bilingually designated classes who received B/CC instruction by a teacher with a B/CC Specialist Credential have high gains in reading and math when compared with students who received instruction by a teacher with a B/CC Certificate of Competence or a B/CC Waiver Certificate. This study measured bilingual instruction based on a statistical comparison between student achievement and the kind of bilingual certificate.

PROCEDURES: The data were collected from two school districts: Alum Rock Unified School District in San Jose, California, and Stockton Unified School District in Stockton, California. The population consisted of 600 students, 300 per district, and 75 teachers, about 37 per district. A total of 286 students and 48 teachers were selected for this research. The 48 teachers were divided into three groups of 5 to a group: B/Cc Specialist Credential, B/CC Certificate of Competence, and B/CC Waiver Certificate, The studies were also divided into three groups of 25 to 30 students in a group. The students were closely matched with the teacher groups on the basis of recorded test results on Pre- and Post-tests in reading and math for each grade level. A total of 9 groups of teachers and students comprised this research. A questionnaire was selected to collect information from the teacher group, The questionnaire asked for information regarding ethnic background, linguistic background, certification, number of years teaching bilingual education, location of training and certification, male or female, years in the present position, school district, grade level now teaching, and the school at which presently teaching, An attitude scale was also provided to gather information from the teachers regarding their attitude toward B/CC education. The purpose of this questionnaire was for careful election of teachers. A locally devised test was used for student-achievement results for Stockton Unified School District: The Language Arts Scope and Sequence LASS) and the Math Scope and Sequence (MSS). The Metropolitan Achievement Test results were used for Alum Rock School District. Both tests were reviewed for reliability and validity. Analysis of Covariance, Two-Way Analysis of Variance, and One-Way Analysis of Variance were employed to determine significant difference between student achievement and the kind of B/CC teacher certification. The level of statistical significance adapted for this study was set at the OS level. The qualitative data gathered through the teacher questionnaire was included.



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