Campus Access Only

All rights reserved. This publication is intended for use solely by faculty, students, and staff of University of the Pacific. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, now known or later developed, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the author or the publisher.

Date of Award


Document Type

Dissertation - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


Educational and School Psychology

First Advisor

Linda Webster

First Committee Member

Amy Brown

Second Committee Member

Justin Low

Third Committee Member

Linda Skrla


The present study investigated whether the impact of early services was greater for mothers with less education and their first grade children who had less than an 80 IQ and behavior problems. Previous research has focused on children with autism, behavior problems, and interventions, whereas this study did not include autism as a characteristic of the sample population. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine if early services moderated the relationship between maternal education and problem behaviors in children; for which each regression model utilized maternal anxiety, child’s gender, and expressive and receptive language ability as the control variables. When investigating the moderating influence of early services for children with low IQ in the relationship between behavior problems and maternal education, it was found that early services did not have a significant moderating effect. However, it was found that maternal education explained a significant amount of variance in the externalizing behavior of children at the .05 level. This finding indicates that the level of maternal education is a better predictor of behavior problems than whether a child receives early intervention. The significance of this study is that it adds to the research for children with low IQ. However, the results in this study should not be considered for the use of policymaking, given the limitations presented.





To access this thesis/dissertation you must have a valid email address and log-in to Scholarly Commons.

Find in ProQuest



If you are the author and would like to grant permission to make your work openly accessible, please email