Academy of Management Journal
This research offers a new theory predicting the effects of three exchange variables, job satisfaction, investment size, and quality of alternatives, on four general responses to dissatisfaction—exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect. Three studies designed to test model predictions' received good support. High satisfaction and investment encouraged voice and loyalty and discouraged exit and neglect. Satisfaction and investment interacted, with variations in investment most strongly promoting voice given high satisfaction. Better alternatives encouraged exit and voice and discouraged loyalty. However, there was no link between alternatives and neglect.