Foot and Ankle: Examination of the Ankle and Foot
CONTENT: Excellent coverage of the complex features and unique pathologies of the foot and ankle region. Dr Davenport first introduces the reader to the functional anatomy of the foot and ankle complex. Naming conventions are discussed and then bones, joints, and muscular structures are reviewed in detail so the reader can gain a full appreciation of the unique mechanics of the foot and ankle. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO-ICF) model is then applied as it pertains to ankle foot function and health. Dr Davenport then summarizes the current research evidence related to the validity, reliability, and diagnostic accuracy of the physical examination for the foot and ankle. Detailed discussion regarding the procedures for common physical examination tests for the foot and ankle are reviewed. An emphasis is placed on developing an organized and methodical approach for examination of the foot and ankle. Common pathologies are then discussed. CASE ANALYSES: Two case studies provide an opportunity to apply the didactic material presented. The first case is a 50-year-old female nurse who complains of pain in the plantar aspect of the left heel after initiating a walking program. The second case is a 55-year-old female who works as an office manager who has a recent history of pain in her right forefoot region. Dr Davenport takes the reader through his evaluation and decision making process for each case.