Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Physician Assistant Studies


Physician Assistant Education

First Advisor

Mark Christiansen


The American Heart Association estimates that by 2035 over 130 million or 45.1 percent of the American population is projected to have some form of cardiovascular disease, defined as coronary heart disease, stable/unstable angina, heart failure and stroke. It is expected that the total cost of treatment for patients with cardiovascular disease will reach 1.1 trillion by 2035 accordingly. Approximately 17.9 million deaths that were reported in 2016 were related to cardiovascular disease based on the World Health Organization statistics. The American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association suggest that primary prevention is accredited to early identification of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors therefore, early recognition is pivotal in decreasing all-cause morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease. Modifiable risks factors such as diet, activity level, and smoking are often utilized as risk stratification for cardiovascular risk; however, lipid profiles such as non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) remain at the forefront as a positive predictor of cardiovascular risk. While it has been established that the proportion of HDL to LDL play an integral role in the progression of cardiovascular disease, it also is thought that inflammation contributes in the progression of coronary artery disease. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association concluded that it is reasonable to measure C-reactive protein (CRP) a sensitive circulating biomarker of inflammation as an adjunct to the measurement of established risk factors in order to better assess the risk of coronary heart disease.

Simpson_Presentation Slides.pptx (637 kB)
Click here to download Presentation Slides

Simpson_Presentation Slides.pptx (637 kB)
Click here to download Presentation Slides



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