Date of Award
Master of Physician Assistant Studies
Physician Assistant Education
Little is known regarding how the use of placebo analgesia compares to opioids affect long-term treatment efficacy in patients with chronic non-cancer pain over the first two years of treatment. To best answer this question, one must understand the transition from acute to chronic pain along nociceptive signaling pathways. This literature review aims to describe the major nociceptive signaling pathways involved in opioid and placebo analgesia and to discuss how placebo treatment affects chronic pain undergoing central sensitization. It will also review the current understanding of placebo effect and discuss the effects of dose-extending placebo use of opioid tolerance.
Hill, Robert, "Efficacy of placebo analgesia treatment in the management of chronic non-cancer pain compared to opioids a review" (2019). Physician's Assistant Program Capstones. 20.