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Translational regulation of gene expression includes any kind of regulators that affect the amount of protein/peptide produced by a single mRNA molecule. There are two very well-studied ways that this happens. The first is through RNA interference (RNAi), which you may have heard of. RNAi uses short pieces of non-coding RNA that are exact or very close reverse-complements to part of an mRNA sequence. This targets the mRNA for destruction or blocks translation.1 The second well-studied way to regulate translation is through RNA binding proteins. These proteins will often bind to specific sequences found outside the protein-coding region in mRNAs. These regions are called the untranslated regions or "UTRs". Proteins that bind here can

  1. Destabilize the mRNA, lowering translation levels.
  2. Stabilize the mRNA, raising translation levels.
  3. Localize the RNA to a specific part of the cell.
  4. Block or inhibit the binding of translation factors, lowering translation levels.
  5. Recruit translation factors, raising translation levels

From Evolutionary Developmental Biology

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molecular biology, gene regulation, gene expression, translation, mRNA, RNA, protein, UTR