Translational regulation of gene expression includes any kind of regulators that affect the amount of protein/peptide produced by a single mRNA molecule. There are two very well-studied ways that this happens. The first is through RNA interference (RNAi), which you may have heard of. RNAi uses short pieces of non-coding RNA that are exact or very close reverse-complements to part of an mRNA sequence. This targets the mRNA for destruction or blocks translation.1 The second well-studied way to regulate translation is through RNA binding proteins. These proteins will often bind to specific sequences found outside the protein-coding region in mRNAs. These regions are called the untranslated regions or "UTRs". Proteins that bind here can
- Destabilize the mRNA, lowering translation levels.
- Stabilize the mRNA, raising translation levels.
- Localize the RNA to a specific part of the cell.
- Block or inhibit the binding of translation factors, lowering translation levels.
- Recruit translation factors, raising translation levels
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molecular biology, gene regulation, gene expression, translation, mRNA, RNA, protein, UTR