Generic signal transduction pathway. An extracellular ligand binds to a membrane-bound receptor triggering the activation of a signal tranduction cascade in the cytoplasm. This cascade may be simple (as in the case of the Notch pathway below) or very complex requiring multiple steps and types of input. The final step of the transduction cascade is translocation of a cytoplasmic transcription factor to the nucleus where it will activate or inhibit the transcription of a downstream gene.
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ligand, receptor, gene expression, signal