Glaciers flowed. Slate Creek 22 miles above Allen’s is only 500 ft. higher, 1200 ft above the sea. The soil over which I passed today is about half slate and half lava. Much of it partly both. The lava is grayish & purplish in color. The slate is red and clayey.
The forest is nowhere dense. There are Sabine and yellow pines and a few Douglass [Douglas] Spruces. White and black oaks are abundant – yet not in dense groves, excepting in the stream ravines. The sun falls freely almost everywhere. Much of the McCloud and Sacramento Valleys (this portion) are rather bare – many of the hills almost bald. These bald places are densely chaparralled, but not deeply. The chaparral is short. This chaparral is largely composed of an oak with a large yellow acorn – fruiting profusely.
Page 19 [Sketch of acorn] 2. dumosa
It is a white oak but has a coriaceous leaf as if inclined to evergreen. It is nearly related to the two white oaks of the river banks where they flow into the plains. These oaks run much farther into the mountains here than farther south on the Merced and [Twolumkee/ Tuolumne] The same distinction holds good here between the two white oaks.
Grape vines festoon all the ravines in a most lovely manner.
These bowery ravines are a marked characteristic – not found at all father south. Indians, birds and squirrels get all the grapes they can eat.
Honeysuckle is also abundant. Fruiting freely. The red berries are quite showy.
Green brier, with dull greenish berries is also very common, and works in becomingly with the grapes. The leaves are large and not crowded, and produce a fine effect.
Clematis is quite common with abundance of feathery tufts.
The brier rose is taller and fruits far more freely than south. The red [lupes] are glossy &
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