John Muir


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25 Aug [August] 14th Alt [altitude] bot [bottom] Red Mtn [Mountain] gl [glacier] 10900 slope 22° Dir [direction] N 10 E Lake at foot from solid rock dam mor [moraine] extending sev [several] 100 yds [yards] below dam, died its 2nd death slowly. (made dam terminal mor [morraine] for some [time], ter [terminal] now 50 yds [yards] from lake. Present action very feeble mostly half way up the gl [glacier] making ter [terminal] moraine of most active part there Alt [altitude] mor [moraine] active in front [undraggled] 50 ft. slope 41° loose hard to [as] [Pack 10] Boulders 8 ft dia [diameter] [sketch: Mor of Red Mtn] Note small material on wing [lats] Slope of up portion of gl [glacier] avg [average] 24°! Top 34° had to cut steps Alt [Altitude] top gl [glacier] 11200. V [Very] faint [Shroud], no crevasse visible surface smooth nearly, few stones upon lines of greatest [decline] visible doubtless due to slip of winter snow Cluster of angular [shored] lakelets [sketch] Alt [altitude] bot [bottom] 2nd Merced gl [glacier] 10975. Slope avg [average] 26 ½° Action v [very] faint small [delicate] gl [glaciers] atop with mor [moraines]. Old mor [moraine] v [very] large. the [empty] portion of basin v [very] [ ] Variegated in color & sculpture [&] moulding of water of outlet rim above very sharply notched contrasting with red mtn [mountain] gl [glacier]. This is upon NE [Northeast] face of Red Mtn [Mountain]. 3rd Merced [Nine] Scarce any motion Slope 27° Dir [Direction] N 15 E has [heard] lakes—large mor [moraine] (old, lat [lateral] walls of basin steep—deep gorges running 500 ft from bottom of basin much narrower than 2nd or [ ] Black Mtn [Mountain] gl [glacier] Alt [Altitude] bot [bottom] 1110 top [moraine] Top 11550 from bot mor [bottom moraine] some portions lower slope 23 Slope mor [moraine] 38. Height when most water escapes 160 ft. Part of gl [glacier] bare dirty ice near E [east] Side Crevasses near [wide] transverse) In front mor [moraine] tendency to stand thus [sketch: gl; Back thus see gap; bot] Once this gl [glacier] extended across cañon mor [moraine] 100 ft up other slope the bare on bottom of cañon & lake Dir [Direction] N 20 W

are well fitted for snow [ ] [ ] therefore trees cannot grow in some places as from then frequently & [ ] [ ] When the forest [was born [undisturbed] for centuries huge [ ] [ ] here & cut. This last [cañon] has [ ] [ ] trees gathered with avalanche [ ] [at best] [ ] Looking than any [ ]. Only the juniper & will? [willow] spruce & the Picea Amabilis & Pinus Monticola & P [Pinus] Flexilis & P [Pinus] Contorta will grow in the region of avalanches & of [ ] it is [from] [ ] [to] the [last] Why [ ], for P [Pinus] Flexilis [ ] too high & the others are not abundant excepting the Will [Willow]Spruce. The Picea is most able to resist the snow than to [bend like] the others. In the [ ] [moraine] [ ] [Some] of [each] where in avalanche [200] yds [yards] wide had rooted out & carried away all the pines but left nearly all of the [others] & in another wh [which] had occurred a little higher on the [same] E [east] side

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Original journal dimensions: 15 x 18 cm.

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Holt-Atherton Special Collections, University of the Pacific Library

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John Muir, journals, drawings, writings, travel, journaling, naturalist