they extend from a washed out basin in the stratified lateral mor up a valley to the W.ward to a height of 2000 ft. or more The stumps are from a few inches to 15 or 20 ft high. & from 2 or 3 inches to 3 ft dia some with bark on. Menzies Spruce, & over considerable areas show the [composted] humus formed of decaying lvs [leaves] bark wood etc. as a bed of [lignite] a few inches in thickness. It is curious and instructive to note how quickly the soft mossy floor of the forest has been changed by pressure of 150 ft of sand to a coal like firm sheet or vein. So firm that the stream that has carried away the sand & exposed the stumps has mostly left the humus layer. It is firm enough to resist ordinary flood action. So also the fine clay floor of the valley formed from fine sediments deposited in lake or pool basin. The stream that excavated the dead groves is the right outlet of the main gl. & is a river
Original journal dimensions: 12 x 20 cm.
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John Muir, journals, drawings, writings, travel, journaling, naturalist