John Muir


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to trade & McKay went ashore to see the chief whose name was Wacananisk while 6 of the Inds [Indians] remained aboard as hostages. McK was received with great show of friendship & fine furs [were] spread for his [bed]. In the morning large numbers [were] came aboard to trade carrying furs wh [which] they threw on deck—but suddenly concealed weapons [were] drawn & most of crew killed on deck. Mr. [Lewis] the clerk & some others got below & while the ship swarmed with natives the magazine was [fired] blown up. The interpreter was in the main [ ] & was thrown unhurt into the sea got into canoe & escaped to tell the tale. Another ship the [Bearn] arrived safe & with goods. Another was wrecked on Coral reef at the Sandwitch Ilds [Islands]. War between Am [America] & Britain [discouraged] & [ frightened] the project failed & [given ] over to the British in 1814. Purchased by the NW Fur Co. for $40,000, Some entered the service of the [NW] Co. some married Inds [Indians] & [ ] their life, others returned E [East] by sea & some crossed the Mtns [Mountains] This served to [call] [although] to the country the adventurous history published Wash [Washington] Irving.

In 1818 the Am [American] flag was again floating over Astoria having been restored to U.S. by treaty with Brit [Britain] Thenceforth the country ruled by fur cos [companies] NW & Hudson B. [Bay] at war for yrs [years] at length consolidated 1821 & all the country dotted with forts. Hudson B [Bay] policy to keep the whole wilderness always wild. Discourage all advancement & kill all competition. Abundant means & v [very] profitable trade penetrated every forest a crossed the vast [solitude] from the frozen [ ] to Sacramento Pacific to Hudson B [Bay] Wherever an Ind [Indian] was to be found there were the servants to the Co. [Company] to give beads for furs blankets ribbons utensils etc. Courier de Bois, My Walk with Wyeth tried to establish trade in 1832 built Fort Hall & F [Fort] [William] near mouth of Wil [Willamette] Bonneville led a co [company] of over a 100 men & remained in Snake Country [2] yrs [years] gathering furs. First emigration [for] settlement was made in 1832.

Date Original



Original journal dimensions: 8.5 x 14.5 cm.

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Holt-Atherton Special Collections, University of the Pacific Library

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John Muir, journals, drawings, writings, travel, journaling, naturalist