John Muir


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50 Smoky Val [valley] is bounded on the west by the Toiyabe [K] wh [which] is well sustained & wall-like slate granite limestone & lava. Sculptured by gls [glaciers] but few of the basins or [wombs] well preserved – mostly degraded – resculptured with V-shaped cans [cañons] by water. The glaciations seems to have been light & restricted mostly to the upper portions of the summits [few] of the wombs have deep wide channels leading to the vals [valleys] One channel cut to plain level from the fountains at head of Twin Rivers – Another from between Bunker Hill & Summits to the S. [south] moraines being exceedingly destructible & made of finely pulverized material are seldom recognizable in [their] residual wasted forms. Highest summits from 10 to 11000 – one 11400

51 The [Toquima] R [river] bounds the val [valley] on the E [east] mostly volcanic. A series of immense black tables – the main mtn [mountain] Jefferson – 11500 ft the highest land this side the Sierra. This is a very marked & imposing mtn [mountain] rounded in general outline as seen from dist [distance] & whitened by patches of snow enduring into Sep. [September] but the summit is found to be made up of many flat tables one of wh [which] is over 2 ½ miles long. They are all irregular & broken down abruptly on the edges & have resulted from recent glacial action. This is the first mtn [mountain] in this vast basin on wh [which] I have observed clear fresh & unmistakeable glacial action all the telling characteristics are found here. The roomy U-shaped canons – morains – gl [glacial] meadows wide amphitheatres [ ] forms - & even a gl [glacial] lake the Over 2 pages

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Original journal dimensions: 9.5 x 16 cm.

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Holt-Atherton Special Collections, University of the Pacific Library

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John Muir, journals, drawings, writings, travel, journaling, naturalist