James Geikie


John Muir


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by this mail, copy of a paper on the geology of Gibralter, which may have some interest for you; in asmuch as it proves that the cold & the glacial epoch had so decided an effect so far south as the South of Spain, and at a comparatively low ele- vation. I believe similar breccias on “glacial agglomerates” occur in many other regions in the South of Europe, and there I hope some time to describe. In short the more I study the Pleistocene deposits of our continael the more am I impressed with the wide spread influence of frost action during our glacial period. By & by I shall hope to send for a little work on which I am now engaged, & which will give an outline sketch of the physical and chemical change which have taken place in Europe since the earliest known appearance of man. Hooker has just published a work on Morocco & the great Atlas, in which he makes mention of the remains of consider- able glacial action in the valleys of the Atlas range. He also besides, great conglomerate or gravel hills which lie out upon the plains at the foot of themountains — which strongly resemble the gravel & sand hills of formerly well-glaciated regions! Yet some of our geologists will main- tain that there never was a glacial period but that each particular region has been glaciated on its own account at some separate period! Mr. Campbell for example trots round the world in one year and a day, and finds no trace of a general cold period in our hemisphere! I had recently a most interesting account by Prof. Chamberlin of the glacial deposits of Wisconsin. He describes the Kettle Range of gravel hills as an immerse moraine, and seems to make out a very strong case. But I suppose you have seen his paper Excuse this rambling letter. And again thanking you for your kind letter, and for your kind offer to show me the wonders of glaciation in your splendid county — (I would fair start off now!) I am faithfully yours James Geikie


Perth [Scotland]

Date Original

1879 Mar 1


Original letter dimensions: 22.5 x 27 cm.

Resource Identifier


File Identifier

Reel 03, Image 1018

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Owning Institution

University of the Pacific Library Holt-Atherton Special Collections. Please contact this institution directly to obtain copies of the images or permission to publish or use them beyond educational purposes.

Page Number

Page 2


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