Title

Characterization of human cytokine biomarkers in the gingival crevicular fluid

Lead Author Affiliation

Advanced Education Program in Endodontology

Second Author Affiliation

Endodontics

Third Author Affiliation

Biomedical Sciences

Fourth Author Affiliation

Biomedical Sciences

Fifth Author Affiliation

Endodontics

Sixth Author Affiliation

Endodontics

Introduction/Context

The gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) harbors hundreds of biomarkers; however, the utility of this fluid for endodontic diagnosis has yet to be explored. The aim of this pilot study was to measure biomarkers in the GCF around teeth with normal pulp, irreversible pulpitis or necrotic pulp.

Method

26 teeth from 14 patients undergoing endodontic treatment were included in the study. Clinical examination including pocket depths, pulpal and periapical diagnosis were recorded. Pain scale levels were measured using VAS. GCF was collected from diseased tooth and contralateral healthy control. Intracanal fluid was also collected after accessing the diseased tooth. 41 of the most common cytokines and chemokines were analyzed using a Luminex assay. Qualitative assessment of the common proteins found was performed. Venn charts were made to evaluate each case individually and to determine any shared proteins between the different sites.

Results

All the 41 biomarkers were measurable in varying amounts. Among the biomarkers, G-CSF, VEGF and TGF-α were detected in 75% or more of the GCF samples. Statistical differences in biomarker values between sites, endodontic diagnoses and pain levels were not observed. A consistently shared biomarker between the collection sites was not identified.

Significance/Conclusions

In spite of the small volume of GCF and intracanal fluid that can be collected, there were highly expressed biomarkers that can be measured using conventional methods. The quantifiability of these biomarkers may allow the future possibility of using the GCF as a surrogate to accurately diagnose and stage pulpal inflammation. In the present study, we were not able to identify any trend or statistical difference; however, the information that is being presented can be utilized in designing future similar studies using larger samples.

Comments

This work was supported by a Research Grant by the American Association of Endodontists (AAE) Foundation (S. Zahran). This work was presented at the 2017 AAE Annual Session on April 25-29 in New Orleans, LA, USA.

Location

University of the Pacific, Dugoni Dental School, San Francisco, CA

Format

Poster

Poster Session

Endodontics Residents Presentations

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Characterization of human cytokine biomarkers in the gingival crevicular fluid

University of the Pacific, Dugoni Dental School, San Francisco, CA

The gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) harbors hundreds of biomarkers; however, the utility of this fluid for endodontic diagnosis has yet to be explored. The aim of this pilot study was to measure biomarkers in the GCF around teeth with normal pulp, irreversible pulpitis or necrotic pulp.