Airway and cephalometric changes in adult orthodontic patients after premolar extractions
Objective: To examine changes in the airway and cephalometric measurements associated with orthodontic treatment of adults with and without premolar extractions. The study investigated whether extractions had a direct or indirect effect on the airway and examined selected skeletal and dental features. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study used pre- (T1) and posttreatment (T2) cone-beam computed tomography scans of 83 adult patients matched for age and sex. A total of 15 airway and 10 skeletal and dental measures were analyzed by means of repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: There were no results showing that extractions affected airway dimensions that could not be accounted for as reflections of measurement error. There was no evidence that extractions affected the airway indirectly through skeletal and dental changes. There were strong and consistent findings that patients with small airways showed larger ones after treatment and that patients with large airways showed smaller ones later. These effects were independent of whether or not extractions were part of treatment. The measurement phenomena of regression toward the mean and of differential unfolding of natural changes over time could have accounted for the results observed. Conclusions: There was no evidence that extractions in nongrowing patients have negative consequences on the size of various airway measures in the nasopharynx, retropalatal, or retroglossal regions.
Chambers, D. W.,
Airway and cephalometric changes in adult orthodontic patients after premolar extractions.
Angle Orthodontist, 90(1), 39–46.