Dietary fructose in pregnancy induces hyperglycemia, hypertension, and pathologic kidney and liver changes in a rodent model
Purpose The incidence of pregnancies complicated by hyperglycemia and hypertension is increasing along with associated morbidities to mother and offspring. The high fructose diet is a well-studied model that induces hyperglycemia and hypertension in male rodents, but may not affect females. We hypothesized that the physiologic stress of pregnancy may alter metabolic responses to dietary fructose. Materials and methods In this study female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two gestational dietary groups: (1) 60% carbohydrate standard rat chow (Pregnant-S - controls) and (2) 60% fructose enriched chow (Pregnant-F). Body weight, blood pressure, blood glucose, triglycerides, and insulin were measured in pregnancy and during the post-partum period. Maternal organ weight and histological changes were also assessed after delivery. Results By midpregnancy Pregnant-F rats had increased weight, elevated blood pressure, higher fasting glucose, and elevated triglycerides compared with Pregnant-S rats. Both groups demonstrated elevated gestational insulin levels with signs of insulin resistance (increased HOMA-IR). Pregnant-F rats showed significant histopathologic hepatic steatosis and renal tubular changes characterized by tubular dilation and glomerulosclerosis. Conclusion Our study provides a model in which dietary change during pregnancy can be examined. We demonstrate, moreover, that high dietary fructose ingestion in pregnant rats may result in profound systemic and pathologic changes not appreciated during routine pregnancy.
Shortliffe, L. M.,
Tsao, P. S.,
Dietary fructose in pregnancy induces hyperglycemia, hypertension, and pathologic kidney and liver changes in a rodent model.
Pregnancy Hypertension, 5(4), 308–314.