Title

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fusion with model membranes: kinetic analysis and the role of lipid composition, pH and divalent cations

ORCiD

Nejat Düzgüneş: 0000-0001-6159-1391

Document Type

Article

Publication Title

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes

ISSN

0005-2736

Volume

1147

Issue

2

DOI

10.1016/0005-2736(93)90007-M

First Page

223

Last Page

236

Publication Date

4-22-1993

Abstract

The kinetics and extent of HIV-1 fusion with model membranes was studied. HIV-1 was labeled with octadecyl rhodamine B chloride, and fusion was monitored continuously as the dilution of the probe into target membranes. The results were analyzed by a mass action model which yielded good simulations and predictions for the kinetics and final extents of fluorescence increase. The model determined the percents of virions capable of fusing and rate constants of fusion, aggregation and dissociation. Ultrastructural analysis of the virus and reaction products by electron microscopy also provided evidence of HIV-1 fusion with membranes lacking CD4. HIV-1 fusion activity depends on the target membrane lipid composition according to the sequence: cardiolipin (CL) > > phosphatidylinositol > CL/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) (3 : 7), phosphatidic acid > phosphatidylserine (PS), PS/cholesterol (2:1) > PS/PC (1:1), PS/phosphatidylethanolamine (1:1) > DOPC, erythrocyte ghosts. Reduction of pH from 7.5 generally enhances the rate and extent of HIV-1 fusion. Physiologically relevant concentrations of calcium stimulate HIV-1 fusion with several liposome compositions and with erythrocyte ghost membranes. The fusion products of HIV-1 with liposomes consist of a single virus and several liposomes. The mass action analysis revealed that, compared to intact virions, the fusion products show a striking reduction in the fusion rate constant. Like influenza and Sendai viruses, HIV-1 fusion with membranes containing its own envelope glycoprotein(s) is strongly inhibited. Unlike these viruses, HIV-1 fusion is promoted by physiological levels of calcium. HIV-1 fusion with liposomes is qualitatively similar to simian immunodeficiency virus fusion. © 1993.

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