Bioactive half-sandwich Rh and Ir bipyridyl complexes containing artemisinin
Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Reaction of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) with 4-methyl-4′-carboxy-2,2′-bipyridine yielded the new ester derivative L1. Six novel organometallic half-sandwich chlorido Rh(III) and Ir(III) complexes (1–6) containing pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, (Cp*), tetramethylphenylcyclopentadienyl (Cp ), or tetramethylbiphenylcyclopentadienyl (Cp ), and N,N-chelated bipyridyl group of L1, have been synthesized and characterized. The complexes were screened for inhibitory activity against the Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 (sensitive), Dd2 (multi-drug resistant) and NF54 late stage gametocytes (LSGNF54), the parasite strain Trichomonas vaginalis G3, as well as A2780 (human ovarian carcinoma), A549 (human alveolar adenocarcinoma), HCT116 (human colorectal carcinoma), MCF7 (human breast cancer) and PC3 (human prostate cancer) cancer cell lines. They show nanomolar antiplasmodial activity, outperforming chloroquine and artemisinin. Their activities were also comparable to dihydroartemisinin. As anticancer agents, several of the complexes showed high inhibitory effects, with Ir(III) complex 3, containing the tetramethylbiphenylcyclopentadienyl ligand, having similar IC values (concentration for 50% of maximum inhibition of cell growth) as the clinical drug cisplatin (1.06–9.23 μM versus 0.24–7.2 μM, respectively). Overall, the iridium complexes (1–3) are more potent compared to the rhodium derivatives (4–6), and complex 3 emerges as the most promising candidate for future studies. xph xbiph 50
Land, K. M.,
Tam, C. C.,
Kim, J. H.,
Cheng, L. W.,
Sadler, P. J.
Bioactive half-sandwich Rh and Ir bipyridyl complexes containing artemisinin.
Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 219,