Parents’ reactions to toddlers’ emotions: relations with toddler shyness and gender
Early Child Development and Care
Published online first
Parents’ reactions to toddlers’ emotions were examined in relation to toddler shyness and gender in a sample of 103 parents (99 mothers, 4 fathers) of 2 year olds. Toddlers were grouped as shy (N = 52; 23 boys) or non-shy (N = 51; 25 boys) using a temperament survey administered by phone, then parents completed questionnaires regarding their emotion socialization practices. Parents of shy toddlers reported being less supportive of their toddlers’ negative emotions than did parents of non-shy toddlers. Parents also reported minimizing negative emotions in shy boys more so than in shy girls. These findings suggest that parents are socializing emotions in their shy toddlers, and especially their shy sons, in ways that are unlikely to facilitate emerging emotion regulation skills. Possible implications for shy toddlers’ later adjustment are discussed.
Parents’ reactions to toddlers’ emotions: relations with toddler shyness and gender.
Early Child Development and Care, Published online first,