Campus Access Only

All rights reserved. This publication is intended for use solely by faculty, students, and staff of University of the Pacific. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, now known or later developed, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the author or the publisher.

Date of Award

2016

Document Type

Thesis - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.)

Department

Biological Sciences

First Advisor

Marcos Gridi-Papp

First Committee Member

Ryan Hill

Second Committee Member

Eric Thomas

Abstract

Sound does not transmit well across the interface of two media. Therefore, most organisms communicate using one medium. Some anurans vocalize at the interface of air and water, though reception of these vocalizations is generally unknown. The túngara frog ( Engystomops pustulosus ) may be the first anuran to have evidence suggesting simultaneous acoustic communication both above and below the air-water interface. This thesis addresses whether the female túngara frog would be receptive to underwater acoustic signals and if males project their advertisement calls at biologically relevant intensities underwater. Females floated and swam with their eardrums and body walls constantly submerged. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, peak vibrations of female eardrums were found to be centered at about 3.5 kHz in air, but dropped to about 1.4 kHz underwater. The peak velocity of the eardrum was about 0.2 mm/s in air and 0.04 mm/s in water when stimulated with tones at 80 dB relative to 20 µPa. Males projected their advertisement calls with a sound pressure level of 121 dB (at 10 cm, re. 20 µPa) in water and 98 dB (at 10 cm, re. 20 µPa) in air. In relation to air, the dominant frequency of the advertisement call (0.8 kHz) was the most intense spectral band underwater whereas the dominant frequency of the chuck (2.5 kHz in air) was less intense. The advertisement signal for the male túngara frog was broadcasted underwater with more energy than in air at its main frequencies. Female eardrums were sensitive to frequencies within the male advertisement call both in air and in water, if the frequencies were transmitted at amplitudes plausible to be encountered in nature. These results strengthen the available evidence of underwater communication, and indicate the presence of auditory specializations in the acoustic communication of this species.

Pages

90

ISBN

9781339960364

To access this thesis/dissertation you must have a valid pacific.edu email address and create an account for Scholarly Commons.

Find in ProQuest

Share

COinS

If you are the author and would like to grant permission to make your work openly accessible, please email