Title

Quail-Duck Chimeras Reveal Plasticity in Signaling Mechanisms Dictating Species-Specific Phenotypic Features

Poster Number

26

Lead Author Affiliation

Dugoni School of Dentistry, Orthodontics

Additional Authors

Miroslav Tolar and Marie M. Tolarova

Introduction

During evolution, differences in jaw size between vertebrate species were crucial for their adaptation to certain environments. However, extreme variation during development may cause a disease.

Purpose

The study in question is focused on developmental events associated with neural crest progenitors that affect differences in beak size. After the period of facial prominence formation and fusion, their further growth may differ greatly.

Method

In the mentioned study, development of duck and quail chimeras was examined. Embryogenesis: This is the time, during which organogenesis of all body systems, starting from a zygote, is finished.

Results

Many different signaling pathways are involved that can orchestrate development of tissues and organs. The most pivotal signaling molecules are listed below. Signaling Molecules: Sonic Hedgehog - SHH: This is a very important signaling molecule involved in organogenesis of many organs. In gene knockout mice lacking functional SHH protein, the brain, skeleton, musculature, gastrointestinal system and lungs fail to develop correctly. Bone Morphogenetic Protein - BMP: Several BMP’s exist in different organ systems. They were originally discovered by their ability to induce formation of bone when injected into the skeletal muscle. Fibroblast Growth Factor- FGF: Growth factors of FGF family are involved in angiogenesis, wound healing and embryonic development of many organs. Delta/Notch: This signaling pathway is required for regulation of cell polarity. Abnormal signaling may cause abnormal anterior-posterior polarity in somites. Quail-Duck Chimeras Reveal Spatio-Temporal Plasticity: The quail duck chimeric system was used to test how dermis regulates expression of genes required for feather development. In the face and neck, the dermis arises from neural crest ectomesenchyme. Experiments showed that quail neural crest cells induced duck host epithelium to form feather buds on a quail like timetable and spatial pattern. In effect, the more quail donor cells were available in the transplanted quail dermis, the more complete was quail-like pattern of feathers in the duck host.

Significance

Neural crest cells regulate expression of genes, which are essential in feather morphogenesis. In particular, neural crest cells are guiding spatial and temporal patterning via regulation of signaling molecules like BMP, SHH, Delta/Notch.

Location

DeRosa University Center, Stockton campus, University of the Pacific

Format

Poster Presentation

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Quail-Duck Chimeras Reveal Plasticity in Signaling Mechanisms Dictating Species-Specific Phenotypic Features

DeRosa University Center, Stockton campus, University of the Pacific

During evolution, differences in jaw size between vertebrate species were crucial for their adaptation to certain environments. However, extreme variation during development may cause a disease.