Title

Music-Based Clinical Tests and Measures: A Review of AMTA Journals

Poster Number

15

Lead Author Affiliation

Conservatory of Music - Music Therapy

Introduction

Assessment is an information gathering process whereby a body of knowledge is constructed about a client or group for clinical purposes. In practice, assessment generally consists of four procedures: reviewing records, interviewing, observing, and testing/measuring. Of these, testing and measurement in music therapy appear to have received the least attention. While surveys of tests and measures exist (Gregory, 2000; Wheeler, 2013; Wilson & Smith, 2000), none have focused exclusively on clinical instruments or the extent to which they have been subjected to repeated and rigorous study.

Purpose

The purpose of this descriptive study was to systematically review American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) journals published between 1983 and 2013 and catalog all music-based clinical tests and measures investigated. Additionally, the authors wanted to ascertain the extent to which the tests and measures identified were subjected to further study.

Method

The authors cataloged all music-based tests and measures via hand and electronic search from the following journals: Journal of Music Therapy, Music Therapy Perspectives, and Music Therapy. In identifying tests and measures for inclusion, the following selection criteria were applied: (a) The test must incorporate musical stimuli into the assessment process; (b) The test must yield a measure (i.e., quantifiable score) representing an identifiable construct or clinical phenomenon; and (c) The test must be intended for use in a clinical (as opposed to a research) setting. Subsequently, each cataloged test was subjected to an additional electronic data-base search to determine whether additional study of its clinical application or technical adequacy was available.

Results

The authors identified fourteen, unique music-based clinical tests/measures that met the inclusion criteria and abstracted the following information: test title, author(s), and year; population served; journal source and publication year; additional studies investigating the test; purpose(s) of the test; construct(s) measured; and type of psychometric evidence reported. Excerpts from the full analytic table follows: Column Headings: [Measure Title; Authors; (Publication Year); Population; Test Purpose; Construct(s) Measured; Evidence of Reliability; Evidence of Validity] 1) Beech Brook Music Therapy Assessment; Layman, Hussey, & Laing; (2002); children/adolescents with emotional disturbance; diagnostic; social behavior, affective regulation, communication, and music-related behavior; interrater reliability; content validity 2) Computer-based Music Perception Assessment for Children (CMPAC); Wolfe & Waldon; (2006); hospitalized children ages 4 to 7 years; diagnostic; music preference, musical responsiveness; test-retest reliability; predictive validity 3) Music/Activity Therapy Intake Assessment; Braswell et al.; (1983, 1986); university students and adult psychiatric patients; diagnostic; activity preference, attitude, involvement, and behavior dysregulation; internal consistency; construct validity 4) Musical Perception Assessment of Cognitive Development (M-PACD); Rider; (1979, 1981, 1986); children with intellectual disabilities; diagnostic; Piagetian levels of cognitive development; no evidence of reliability; construct validity 5) Music-based Attention Assessment (MAA); Jeong & Lesiuk; (2011); typical adults (intended adults with TBI); diagnostic, summative; sustained, selective, and divided attention; internal consistency; construct validity 6) Music-based Attention Assessment: Revised (MAA-R); Jeong; (2013); adults with TBI; diagnostic, summative; sustained, selective, and divided attention; internal consistency; construct validity 7) Music-Based Evaluation of Cognitive Functioning (MBECF); Lipe; (1995, 2007); older adults with Alzheimer’s disease or related disorders; diagnostic; mental status, cognitive functioning; internal consistency; construct validity (NOTE: In total, 14 measures were included in this analysis.)

Significance

Clinical testing and measurement in music therapy should receive attention commensurate with the other three areas of assessment. This study is part of a larger, ongoing project the objective of which is to examine the status of clinical measures and establish a research agenda that encourages the development, study, and appropriate use of clinical tests and measures in music therapy.

Location

DeRosa University Center, Stockton campus, University of the Pacific

Format

Poster Presentation

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Apr 25th, 10:00 AM Apr 25th, 12:00 PM

Music-Based Clinical Tests and Measures: A Review of AMTA Journals

DeRosa University Center, Stockton campus, University of the Pacific

Assessment is an information gathering process whereby a body of knowledge is constructed about a client or group for clinical purposes. In practice, assessment generally consists of four procedures: reviewing records, interviewing, observing, and testing/measuring. Of these, testing and measurement in music therapy appear to have received the least attention. While surveys of tests and measures exist (Gregory, 2000; Wheeler, 2013; Wilson & Smith, 2000), none have focused exclusively on clinical instruments or the extent to which they have been subjected to repeated and rigorous study.