Title

CLEFT LIP AND PATE AND ANIMAL PROTEIN IN MATERNAL DIET

Lead Author Affiliation

Dental Surgery

Second Author Affiliation

Clinical Nutrition

Third Author Affiliation

Department of Orthodontics

Introduction

The etiology of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (N/CLP) is multifactorial (genetic and environmental factors). Polymorphisms of several candidate genes have been identified and it is our understanding that they create a “susceptibility” for N/CLP that requires an environmental triggers for developing a cleft. Among environmental factors, the most important are those in maternal diet and lifestyle.

Purpose

To review the existing literature and pose new theories for how maternal periconceptional animal protein (AP) consumption and orofacial clefting (OFC) may be related.

Method

Electronic searches were conducted on the topic of maternal periconceptional AP consumption and OFC. Given limited articles on this topic, additional searches were conducted on specific nutrients and chemical compounds found primarily in AP.

Results

Studies have shown deficiencies of some nutrients, such as iron and zinc, may be involved in etiology of OFC. While AP is rich in these nutrients, the same studies fail to show any significant differences between cases and controls with respect to AP intake. In the diet of control mothers, plant protein intake is significantly higher suggesting that protective nutrients like iron and zinc come primarily from non-animal protein sources. Choline is also plentiful in AP and helps protect against neural tube defects, but it is largely destroyed during the cooking process. Plant protein, including soy products and numerous green vegetables, may actually serve as a richer source of dietary choline and can be consumed without cooking. Finally, cooked AP has been shown to produce mutagenic HCAs and PAHs, which have been linked to cancer in humans and could conceivably increase the risk of birth defects through their effects on the DNA.

Significance

These findings suggest that AP - although rich in iron, zinc and choline - may not play as protective a role in the periconceptional diet as other sources, namely plant proteins. Cooked meat may introduce mutagens that alter DNA and may increase the risk of OFC. The mechanism by which AP ultimately acts on DNA has yet to be explored, but further research on this topic could prove especially valuable in identifying ways, in which nutrient supplementation and dietary counseling could be used to prevent clefting.

Location

DeRosa University Center, Stockton campus, University of the Pacific

Format

Poster Presentation

This document is currently not available here.

Share

COinS
 
Mar 25th, 10:00 AM Mar 25th, 3:00 PM

CLEFT LIP AND PATE AND ANIMAL PROTEIN IN MATERNAL DIET

DeRosa University Center, Stockton campus, University of the Pacific

The etiology of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (N/CLP) is multifactorial (genetic and environmental factors). Polymorphisms of several candidate genes have been identified and it is our understanding that they create a “susceptibility” for N/CLP that requires an environmental triggers for developing a cleft. Among environmental factors, the most important are those in maternal diet and lifestyle.