Title

Changes of sodium ion compartmentalization in biological systems due to pathological states. An NMR study

ORCiD

David M. Ojcius: 0000-0003-1461-4495

Document Type

Article

Publication Title

Biochimie

ISSN

0300-9084

Volume

85

Issue

9

DOI

10.1016/S0300-9084(03)00122-6

First Page

849

Last Page

861

Publication Date

9-1-2003

Abstract

Noninvasive nuclear magnetic resonance was used to measure the relaxation decay curves of naturally occurring 23Na ions in several biological systems. Experimental results showed an increase of membrane bound population for pathologic samples as compared with control. The bound sodium population was put in evidence using singular value decomposition method. Thus, the singular values that are obtained without any a priori from the fitting the relaxation decay curves are a new parameter in characterizing the cellular state. In the presence of artificial biological membranes, 23Na bound strongly to membranes containing phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylserine (PS), but not to membranes consisting of only PC. A large bound population also appeared in the presence of apoptotic epithelial cells, which are known to translocate PS to the cell surface. A role for PS was confirmed by showing that sodium binds to the surface of epithelial cells infected with Chlamydia psittaci, and the amplitude of the bound population increases with a time-course similar to the appearance of PS on the surface of dying cells. Finally, this approach could distinguish between normal perfused liver and liver undergoing ischemia, due most likely to the exposure of surface PS on apoptotic and necrotic cells in the damaged tissue. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that the analysis of 23Na relaxation decay curves could reveal the presence of cells undergoing apoptosis and/or necrosis in living tissues. Noninvasive 23Na NMR measurements could thus be envisioned for controlling the quality of organs before transplantation, for the detection of asymptomatic infections that result in death of the host cell or inflammation of the tissue, and for characterizing the efficiency of novel apoptosis-inducing drugs to treat cancer.